Fedora 25 impressions

I recently switched from Ubuntu 16.10 to Fedora 25 on my gaming computer just to give it another shot. The mindset in this distribution is slightly different from that of Ubuntu, especially in that releases come more often. For a computer mainly used for playing around, this is not a bad thing, but unfortunately it also shows where Fedora’s weaknesses are, compared to more polished operating systems, and compared to what regular users would accept from a daily driver. A very concrete example is how the operating system handles kernel updates:

Running the non-free nVidia driver – this is my gaming computer first and foremost –  every kernel update seems to break the graphical user environment, at the very least requiring me to perform an additional reboot after showing me the famous white “oh no…” screen. To be fair, the non-free drivers are not part of the core operating system in Fedora,  but would it really be that hard to look for this characteristic event and let it trigger an additional reboot if that’s all it takes?

Otherwise I must say Fedora does what I need it to and does it well. I’ll keep using it for a while and see how it works for me in the long run.

Postfix and subdomain mail delivery

My last project has been about securing outgoing mail from one of our systems.

We had a few basic requirements:
1) Mails to customers should not be falsely flagged as spam.
2) Performance. Several thousand mails are sent per day.
3) Reusability: Multiple systems should be able to send mail through the same solution, preferably from multiple domains.

1) The MTA will be placed in our DMZ to be reachable by various systems in multiple domains.
2) The MTA must reach our mail-to-fax converter.
3) The MTA must reach our main mail server cluster without going via external services.
4) Accounts used for outgoing mail should not have mail to them stored on the MTA, but instead relayed to the main mail servers.


Originally we sent our mail via our regular mail servers through a cloud based spam filter service, but our volumes caused this traffic to get throttled by the service provider, breaking the performance requirement.

Next we tried a software called SMTPBeamer, which a colleague of mine had used for a slightly different task, but which seemed promising, easy to set up and doesn’t break the bank. Unfortunately, this program doesn’t have native DKIM signing of mails, which it turns out is pretty mandatory today if one wants to avoid having a large share of sent mail bounce or get stuck in spam filters. In other words this broke our first and perhaps most important requirement.

This caused me to consider a serious mail transfer agent, namely Postfix.

Installation and initial configuration was made dead simple thanks to the excellent walkthrough provided by Christoph Haas, at ISPMail Tutorial. Thanks to his explanations, digging deeper into how Postfix works to complement with further functionality got a lot easier than I had anticipated.

So what pitfalls did we have to cross?


We still send a lot of faxes. They are generated by an appliance connected to our PBX: Basically it listens to mail on the format phonenumber@fax.domain.name. To begin with, I couldn’t get my head around how to make Postfix understand that I wanted mail to that subdomain to be sent to a specific IP address.
Hint: The Postfix documentation is all you need, provided you understand that it requires to be able to look up any recipient domain by DNS. An entry in the hosts file is not enough.

The relevant clue was found in a forum post where the author wrote about the command “host”, which specifically looks up the given host name using DNS rather than the hosts file. After spending hours trying different combinations of relay and transport maps and configurations, just adding the fax subdomain to the zone file for the correct subnet solved the problem immediately. I had understood the Postfix documentation for the necessary transport rules correctly from the start, but I hadn’t understood Postfix.

User accounts

After following the ISPMail Tutorial to the T, I had a perfect little mail server which could send mail using local virtual accounts for authentication, but also accepted mail to these accounts. It would be possible to work around this issue, but this was not the behavior I was looking for. By switching the domain to which these accounts belonged in the database without changing their fully qualified names, and adding their actual domain to relay_domains, along with a transport rule, I can now use the proper mail addresses for authentication, to reduce the risk of spamming while still passing on any mail from one account to another straight to our internal mail servers.

I will soon take the time to describe the solutions and configurations required in more technical detail and hopefully using a lot less prose.

Using the right tool for the job…

I encountered an interesting problem after setting up load balancing for a web service one of our devs needed to make available: Accessing a dummy page with a HTTP GET went flawlessly when using a regular web browser, but POSTing to it using his client software or curl resulted in a 503 error. At first I suspected a misconfigured firewall, but when reading the HAProxy logs, I discovered that the 503 error was accompanied by a “<NOSRV>” tag, meaning that HAProxy couldn’t make out to which backend it should forward the client data.

The solution was simple: Up until now, I’d only forwarded traffic from modern web browsers, using the ssl_fc_sni function to find the appropriate backend based on the server name requested by the client. What I forgot when setting up these rules was that the POST wouldn’t be performed by a modern browser, so I had no guarantee that the client would be capable of the SNI (Server Name Indication) protocol extension.

The simple solution was to use the host record from the HTTP header instead:

use_backend backend1 if { hdr(Host) -i service.domain.com }

Note that this requires that SSL is terminated in HAProxy. My configuration terminates SSL, reads and modifies relevant HTTP information, then establishes a new SSL connection to the backend servers using the appropriate certificate checks. This way protocol secrecy should be kept anytime traffic is in transit.

Apple Smart Keyboard First Impressions

Having just received my Smart Keyboard for my iPad Pro 9,7″, I thought I’d write a little about it.

The first thing I was slightly apprehensive about was naturally how it would feel to type on it. The Apple tables in stores don’t really lend themselves to actually testing that aspect realistically. It turns out I worried unnecessarily: The cupped shape of the keys, along with the relatively large gap between them makes it very comfortable for me to type on the keyboard. Going from my Retina MacBook Pro or Magic Keyboard to the Smart Keyboard is almost completely seamless for me. It’s comfortable enough on a table, but what’s interesting is that thanks to its strong magnets, it actually works in my lap while half-lying in a couch too. At least as long as the iPad itself keeps its center of balance towards the rear support.

The keyboard itself supports almost all shortcuts and key combinations I’m used to from Apple’s computer keyboards except for those that require the use of the Fn key, which on the Smart Keyboard is replaced by a shortcut to switch between keyboard layouts.

As I am used to writing on a Swedish keyboard but often write technical documents in English, I soon encountered a situation that could have turned the Smart Keyboard into a dud for me:
How does it handle typing in one language while using the keyboard layout of another language? The autocorrect dictionary in iOS is tied to the chosen keyboard layout. Turns out Apple thought of that issue long before I did. When I did, I was very happy to see that under General Settings, there’s a button called Hardware keyboard. Thanks to it, it’s possible to turn off text autocorrection while using a physical keyboard while retaining the function when typing on-screen, where special characters are chosen visually anyway. This is one of those small things that makes me fond of Apple. This need of mine probably represents a pretty small percentage of Apple’s customers, but one of their developers thought of it and implemented a solution that makes switching from tablet mode to “almost laptop” mode completely seamless.

So are there any drawbacks to the Smart Keyboard?
Not a lot of them. One thing I noticed quickly is that the edit field on some forums doesn’t capture the cursor keys: Marking text using various combinations of Shift, Option, Command and the cursor keys is somewhat hit-or-miss across different sites on the web. In WordPress it works perfectly, but on the MacRumors forums touching any of the cursor keys while in the edit field scrolls to the bottom of the page. At this point I have no idea where the problem lies, but it’s a bit frustrating since selecting text is a chore using fingers on a touch screen.

All in all, and in my use case, the Smart Keyboard complements the iPad Pro perfectly, and I can definitely see myself leaving for an extended vacation without bringing my computer along largely thanks to it. Time will tell whether I’ll stay happy with this combination or if I’ll rather invest in an ultralight laptop the next time I have to replace my hardware.





Changing screen refresh rate in Fedora 23

I’ve just installed Fedora 23 on my gaming computer at home, switching from Mint 17.3.

I have an nVidia card (using RPM Fusion to install the non-free drivers still necessary to get any kind of 3D performance out of it), and an Eizo Foris monitor capable of running at 120 Hz refresh rate. It took me a while to figure out how to make the latter work in Mint (create a ~/.config/monitors.xml). Unfortunately, this approach – along with a number of others – didn’t work in Fedora 23.

The solution (and its cause) was embarrassingly simple: I followed the general gist of the initial posts in this discussion thread, using xrandr to output the necessary data and creating a Gnome autostart item  (~/.config/autostart/xrandr.desktop) which starts xrandr with the correct output, mode and refresh rate options. I did not disable the Wayland session where gdm initially runs.

Zero Gravity Buell Touring windscreen review

As per my latest post, I recently received a higher windscreen for my Buell XB12X.

The stock windscreen is low – it puts the slipstream straight in the rider’s stomach or lower chest area. This is perfectly alright for shorter rides – I’ve even seen people entirely remove the windscreen for a more street fighter-like look, but on longer rides or when riding in cold weather, this gets tiring.

Enter the Zero Gravity Touring Windscreen.

It’s only a couple of inches higher than the stock one, but transfers the slipstream to shoulder/helmet level when sitting in an active riding stance, lowering upper body buffeting and making wind noise noticeably quieter. The effect of this is that longer rides become a lot more relaxed, even if it’s not as effective as the barn door of a wind screen that’s mounted on the BMW R1200GS. The difference lies mainly in how you can sit on the bike and still be protected. The larger screen of the GS lets a rider of average height sit upright when riding even at speed. On the other hand: A Buell Ulysses isn’t first and foremost a touring bike, but a sporty bike capable of touring duty. Mounting forward pegs, handlebar risers and sheepskin seat covers goes against everything in the bike’s philosophy, so I simply reject the claims of hard buffeting with the ZG windscreen from riders who’ve done such mods on their bikes – sitting further back naturally puts you in a more turbulent area, and that area naturally lies closer to a smaller screen than it does to a higher one.

Another problem people have written about, is the touring windscreen breaking loose at speed. Some have gone to great lengths to avoid the problem, including mounting large mounting brackets on the flyscreen. I understand the thought, but for now I believe it’s enough to simply use new grommets when fastening the larger windscreen. When testing my setup in controlled circumstances, the windscreen worked perfectly well, albeit with some flexing, in sustained speeds up to 160 km/h. That’s perfectly acceptable when touring. For hooligan duty, it might be safer to go with the lower stock screen, though.

To conclude this post, I’d say that next to the heated grips, this mod is definitely worth it, both for extending the riding season and for making long rides more comfortable.

Motorcycle season coming up

Two days ago, I prepared the Suzuki for use by Tanja for practice, for her driver’s license. Despite standing unused for a few years (since I got my Buell), the only thing wrong with it, was that the gas in the tank had deteriorated some, and that the front brake had gotten stuck. I spent an hour or so taking the brake apart, and giving it a good massage.
I’ll book a time for the legally mandatory checkup and switch insurance companies to one that’ll give us a good price, and the bike’s ready for the road.